How To Build Up A Small Home Solar Power System?

Small home solar power generation systems

Small home solar power generation systems are divided into off-grid power generation systems and on-grid power system. The main difference is whether there is a battery.

System Overview

  1. Applicable environment: in the wild, large and medium-sized residential / houses that are difficult in taking electricity (it is not recommended to install in the mains area, or install the mains complementary type).
  2. The system is equipped with high-quality monocrystal silicon or polycrystalline silicon solar panels and has a supporting maintenance-free solar battery, photovoltaic off-grid inverter and charge controller with overcharge and over-discharge protection function, which can be designed as mains / intelligent switching function of the photovoltaic system. The controller adopts LCD screen/indicator display, which is beautiful in appearance, safe and efficient.
  3. Easy maintenance, a long service life of more than 20 years, a variety of charging methods complementary, solar and city power can charge the system.

Composition

The small household solar power system is composed of a solar panel, a solar controller, and a battery bank. If the output power is AC 220V or 110V, you need to configure an inverter. All these components you can find it in Eco-Sources solar products at competitive price.

Solar Panels

The function of the solar panel is to convert the light energy of the sun into electrical energy, and the output DC power is stored in the battery. Solar panels are one of the most important components in small-scale home solar power generation systems. Their conversion rate and service life are important factors that determine whether solar cells have value in use. It is made up of the following materials:

  1. Solar Cells: High-efficiency (16.5% or more) monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon solar cells are used to ensure that the solar panel generates sufficient power.
  2. Glass: Low-iron tempered suede glass (also known as white glass) with a thickness of 3.2 mm and a transmittance of over 91% in the wavelength range (320-1100 nm) of the solar cell’s spectral response. For infrared light greater than 1200 nm, there is a higher reflectivity. The glass is also resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation and the light transmittance does not decrease.
  3. EVA: A high-quality EVA film with a thickness of 0.78 mm, which is coated with an anti-UV agent, an antioxidant and a curing agent, is used as a sealing agent for solar cells and a connecting agent with glass and TPT. It has a high light transmittance and anti-aging ability.
  4. TPT: The back cover of the solar cell-the fluoroplastic film is white, reflecting the sunlight, so the efficiency of the component is slightly improved, and because of its high infrared emissivity, the operating temperature of the component can also be lowered. Which helps improve the efficiency of components.
  5. Border: The aluminum alloy frame used has high strength and strong resistance to mechanical shock.

Solar Charge Controller

  1. Using a single-chip computer and special software to achieve intelligent control.
  2. Accurate discharge control using battery discharge rate characteristics correction. The discharge end voltage is a control point corrected by the discharge rate curve, which eliminates the inaccuracy of the simple voltage control over discharge and conforms to the inherent characteristics of the battery, it means different discharge rates have different final voltages.
  3. With overcharge, over discharge, electronic short circuit, overload protection, unique anti-reverse protection and other automatic control; the above protection does not damage any parts, do not burn insurance。
  4. The series PWM charging main circuit is adopted, so that the voltage loss of the charging circuit is reduced by nearly half compared with the charging circuit using the diode, and the charging efficiency is 3%-6% higher than the non-PWM, which increases the power consumption time. Overcharged recovery charging, normal direct charge, and floating charge automatic control mode make the system have a longer service life. At the same time, it has a high precision temperature compensation.
  5. The intuitive LED lighting tube indicates the current battery status, allowing the user to understand the usage status.
  6. All control uses industrial grade chips, which can run freely in cold, high temperature and humid environments. At the same time, the crystal timing control is used to ensure accurate control.
  7. Using digital LED display and settings, a one-button operation can complete all settings, the use of extremely convenient and intuitive role is to control the working state of the entire system, and the battery has overcharge protection, over-discharge protection. In places with large temperature differences, qualified controllers should also have temperature compensation. Other additional functions such as light control switches and time control switches should be optional for the controller.

Solar Battery

The function of the battery is to store the electrical energy emitted by the solar panel when it is exposed to light and release it when needed. The solar battery is the application of ‘battery’ in solar photovoltaic power generation. Currently, there are four kinds of lead-acid maintenance-free batteries, ordinary lead-acid batteries, colloidal batteries and alkaline nickel-cadmium batteries, and the widely used batteries are lead-acid maintenance-free batteries and gel batteries. These two types of batteries are suitable for solar power systems, especially unattended workstations, because of their inherent ‘free’ maintenance characteristics and less environmental pollution.

Solar Inverter

The direct output of solar energy is generally DC 12V, 24V, 48V. In order to supply electrical energy to 220V AC appliances, it is necessary to convert the DC power generated by the small household solar power system into AC power, thus requiring the use of a DC-AC inverter.

Advantages Of A Small Home Solar Power System

  1. Safe and reliable, no noise, no radiation, no need to consume fuel, no mechanical rotating parts, low failure rate and long service life.
  2. It is environmentally friendly, not limited by geographical location, short construction period, random size, easy assembly and disassembly, easy to move.
  3. The cost of disassembly and assembly is low, and it can be easily combined with buildings. There is no need to pre-embed high transmission lines, which can avoid damage to vegetation and environment when laying cables over long distances.
  4. The voltage is stable, and it is widely used in various electrical equipment. It is very suitable for electricity use in remote places such as villages, farms, hills, islands, highways, etc. It is also an excellent emergency backup power source.

Design Considerations For Small Home Solar Power Systems

  1. Where is the small household solar power system used?
  2. What is the radiation situation in the area?
  3. What is the load power of the system?
  4. What is the output voltage of the system, DC or AC?
  5. How many hours does the system need to work every day?
  6. How many days does the system need to be powered continuously in the event of rainy weather without sunlight?
  7. What is the starting current?
  8. The number of system requirements.